Category Archives: HealthCare

Breast Cancer Unmasked!

Breast Cancer

This is a cancer that develops from breast tissue, and it’s one of the most common cancers affecting females. Most women who get it are over 40 years old, this is a ration of 8 to 10. Younger women and men also get breast cancer in rare case. If it’s treated early enough, breast cancer is curable and can be prevented from spreading to other parts of the body.

In this article, I will feature on breast cancer in women.

October

The month of October is worldwide Breast Cancer Awareness Month. It’s dedicated to raise consciousness about the thousands of women who are diagnosed with the disease every year. The pink ribbon and the colour pink in general, is an international symbol for breast cancer month. Pink is considered feminine and the roles that come with this gender like being beautiful, caring, good and being cooperative.

Signs and Symptoms to look out for:

1. Lump in the breast.
2. Fluid coming from the nipple.
3. Dimpling of the skin around the breast.
4. A change in breast shape.
5. A red scaly patch of skin.
6. Swollen lymph nodes, around the breast.
7. Shortness of breath.

Causes

No one knows the exact cause of breast cancer. Medics rarely know why some women develop breast cancer while others don’t. Most women who have breast cancer will never be able to tell the exact cause. One thing for sure breast cancer is always caused by damage to a cell’s DNA.

Risks factors

Some of these risks can be changed and for some we can do little about as we have absolutely no control over them.

1. A female whose female relatives have had breast cancer is two to three times more likely to develop the disease. This is because the disease is hereditary.
2. Advancing in age. As we saw earlier the big percentage of cancer patients lies from 40 years of age onwards.
3. Lack of childbearing or lack of breastfeeding.
4. Great exposure to estrogen hormone. Estrogen makes cells to divide, the more the cells divide, they become abnormal, thus becoming cancerous.
Estrogen exposure is greatly affected by the age a lady starts and stops menstruating, the average length of her menstrual cycle, and her age at first childbirth. Her risk for breast cancer is increased if she starts menstruating before age 12, has her first child after age 30, or stops menstruating after age the age of 50 years and above. Also, if she has her menstrual cycle shorter or longer than the average 24-28 days.
5. Radiation exposure. If you get radiation treatments to your chest as a child or young adult, your risk of breast cancer is increased.
6. Diet. Research has shown that women with high fat intake diets are more prone to getting the disease.
7. Lack of physical activity.
8. The ladies that smoke and drink alcohol increase the risk of developing this cancer.
9. Chances of getting breast cancer are increased if you’ve had breast cancer in one breast before.
Diagnosis

Do self-examination of the breast always to check for the above symptoms. If you see anything suspicious see your doctor immediately.
Do mammography tests every two years for early detection.

Although screening for breast cancer cannot prevent you from getting breast cancer, it can help find it early when it is easier to treat. Talk to your doctor about which screening tests are right for you, and when you should have them.

Sierra Nevada Cancer Center Talks Breast Cancer: Care, Prevention, Risk Factors

The idea of undergoing any cancer treatment can be difficult, which is why Dr. Jorge Perez and his team strive to offer immediate Advanced Cancer Care to patients and their families.

“I work personally with patients and their families and collaborate closely on disease management,” said Dr. Perez. ” I want all of my patients to beat their cancer, and I will do everything that I can to help them restore their health.”

The team prides itself on its personal approach, and SNCC patients become part of our extended family of cancer warriors and survivors.

“We are here to help,” said Dr. Perez. “While you are in our care, we want you to feel like you have a friend — and a resource that can help connect you with information, support, ideas or just an ear to listen.”

And the best feedback we can hear is that our patients felt supported throughout the process.

“I feel very blessed that the Sierra Nevada Cancer Center has been helping me fight my spreading breast cancer,” said SNCC patient and South Lake Tahoe resident Kathy B. “Dr. Perez and his staff are very supportive, inspirational, professional and secure. An illness like mine makes life difficult every day, but being able to communicate and stay focused on my medications helps me stay strong and encouraged to continue with all my treatments. Thank you with all my heart and soul.”

Preventive Measures

Treatment and early detection is what has given the millions of breast cancer survivors their best chance at beating cancer.

To reduce your risk of breast cancer:
* Increase your level of physical activity
* Maintain a healthy weight and diet
* Decrease the consumption of alcohol
* Talk with your doctor about ways to avoid Combined Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Risk Factors

Many factors contribute to the risk of developing breast cancer — gender, age, family history and race among them.
* Breast cancer occurs nearly 100 times more often in women than in men. Men can also be diagnosed with breast cancer, but they have a far greater risk developing Prostate Cancer.
* Two out of three women with invasive cancer are diagnosed after age 55.
* If your mother, sister, father or child has been diagnosed with breast cancer, the risk of you developing breast cancer increases, especially if your relative was diagnosed before the age of 50.
* It is unknown as to why, but breast cancer is more common in Caucasian women.
Bio:
Keep in mind: You only have control over some aspects of your risk factors. Sierra Nevada Cancer is here to help if you are diagnosed, with facilities and treatments that will encourage healing in your battle against cancer.

Radiation therapy Queens New York a treatment for breast cancer!

For breast cancer the only treatment you can think of is surgery. This surgery is then followed through the breast cancer radiation therapy. It is prominently known as radiotherapy. This therapy is one of the extremely efficient methods to eliminate cancer cells in the breast which might stick around at the time of surgery.

At the time you take up this therapy from advanced radiation center of New York it can decrease the risk of breast cancer reappearing by around seventy percent. Many of you get scared about this treatment. However, the fact is that it is not very complicated to tolerate. Side effects will only be at the treated area.

Radiation therapy is performed by the radiation doctor New York referred to as oncologist. They are the ones that will carry out radiation to the breast to eradicate cancer cells. This therapy runs inside the cancer cells so that they are not able to multiply. When this happens the body gets rid of them naturally. All the healthy tissues get activated and start working once this is done.

In some complicated situation radiation therapy Queens New York is performed before to surgery for minimizing the size of the tumor. A general treatment that is carried out at the early stage of breast cancer is breast conserving therapy. It is the kind of therapy which involves surgical elimination of the breast lump and a close margin of general breast tissue. In this therapy there is 6-7 weeks of radiation therapy given.

This treatment of breast cancer radiation will begin one month before the surgery. With this the breast tissues get good time to get cured. This is one which is a few times suggested to women so that other cancer cells get eliminated and the tumors also shorten to a great extent.

The treatment offered by advanced radiation center of New York will be very short and not harmful for the tissues and the skin. The treatment of this therapy is tolerable, however after the third week or later there might be some side effects.

Some side effects which you face can include fatigue sunburn effect on the skin, skin staining swelling or weight over the breast and lot more. Sometimes the breasts become small and very firm. All these side effects will reduce after some time. You should know that radiation effects will not be permanent. The treated skin will also be restored when the treatment is finished.

For this therapy see to it that you only choose the best radiation doctor New York.

Cancer, Types, Causes, Effects And Solution

Cancer is the growth of uncontrolled and abnormal cells at any point in the body with the ability to spread to other part of the body. These is different with benign tumors, which do not spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the world. But survival rates are high this day, thanks to improvement in cancer screening and treatments. There are over 200 types of cancer.

Cancer occur in different types, cancer are divided into various types base on it’s origin in the human body, the main types are;
* Carcinoma is the common type of cancer, this type of cancer begins in the skin or tissue covering the surface of internal organs and glands. It usually form solid tumors. Carcinoma are most common types of cancer. Examples are prostrate, breast, lung and colorectal cancer.
* Sarcomas start in the tissues that connect and support the body. It can develop in fat, muscle, nerves, tendons, joints, blood vessels, lymph vessels, cartilage or bone.
* Leukemias are cancer of the blood. Leukemia occur when healthy blood cells start changing and growing uncontrollably. Four main type of leukemia are acute lymphocyte leukemia, chronic lymphocyte leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia.
* Lymphomas is a type of cancer that starts in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is the connection of glands and vessels that help in fighting infection. We have two main types of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer can occur in many types that can be learned, there are over 200 of them.

Cancer can spread to various parts of the body through blood streams, lymph node which is the first place it spread to, during metastasis cancer cells grow and may develop into new tumors or cancer.

Cancer can be caused by several factors which may include inherited genetic defects, infections, environmental factors such as air pollution, poor lifestyle choices such as smoking and heavy alcohol drinking can cause damage to DNA and lead to cancer. When a cell fails to repair DNA damage, it undergoes so-called programmed cell death. Cancer occurs when cells grow, divide and spread abnormally instead of self destruction normally.

Risk factors of cancer include Age(65+), Drinking Alcohol heavily, Sun/Radiation exposure, Obesity, Unsafe Sex, Family History, Environment( being exposed to chemicals, smoke or radiation and so on.

Hence, effects of cancer include pain having cancer or during treatments, fatigue having cancer or during treatment, breathing difficulty during treatment, nausea having cancer or during treatment(medication available), diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, chemical changes in your body, brain and nervous system problems, unusual immune system reaction to cancer, cancer that spread, cancer that returns and so on.

Cancer can be prevented by stooping smoking, avoiding excessive sunlight exposure, eating a healthy diet, exercising steadily, maintaining a healthy weight, moderate alcohol drinking, going for cancer screening and asking your doctor for immunization.

Finally, cancer can be solved or treated depending on the type or stage of cancer. In some people diagnosis and treatment can occur at the same time if the cancer is surgically removed. Cancer treatment can be received by one or more of the following components which are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of two or three of these treatments. There are medications that help in suppressing the pains and symptoms of cancer.

Types of Cancer Treatment: Modern Medical Approach

Сancer is a famous “killer” of cancer patients, which invariably ranks first in the ratings for prevalence, lethality, and belated diagnosis. Few people know about what methods of examination can detect cancer at an early stage and what modern medicine can offer as a weapon in the fight against a tumor.

Malignant neoplasms are a fairly extensive group of tumors, each of which has its favorite localization, the speed of development and prognosis. Some cancers are able to grow imperceptibly over the years, others are characterized by lightning fastness. Nevertheless, doctors note the general properties of neoplasms of lung tissue: for example, they are more often found in people who have smoked for many years, as well as for residents of cities with poor ecology, miners and employees of harmful industries. The likelihood of cancer increases with age.

World statistics is disappointing: according to the World Health Organization, a million patients are diagnosed with this ailment every year.

Meanwhile, doctors are sure that if patients addressed them in time, with the 1 and 2 stages of the disease, then the overwhelming majority of patients could be saved from death. And even with a delayed diagnosis, there are chances for recovery. The main thing is to undergo a thorough examination and an effective course of treatment for cancer.

Stages of cancer

Classification of cancer simplifies the selection of optimal treatment tactics, but doctors analyze the situation far beyond the conventional stages – because each tumor and each patient is individual.

The zero stage – “cancer in place” – is extremely rare, because it implies the presence of a microscopic tumor. Doctors usually detect such a tumor by accident, during the treatment of another pathology of the lungs. It is quite easy to cure it, the prognosis for the patient’s life is favorable;
The first stage implies the presence of a tumor up to 3 cm in diameter, which does not have metastases (in other organs or lymph nodes). Treatment is almost always successful;
The second stage is diagnosed when cancer has grown to 6 cm, and one or two of the closest to the body lymph nodes showed malignant cells. In some cases, at this stage, the oncologists can remove the tumor;
The third stage is a condition in which the tumor has grown enough to affect the adjacent segment of the body. In this pathological process involves many lymph nodes, surrounding the body. The prognosis is usually unfavorable, but proper treatment helps to significantly slow the progression of the disease.
The fourth stage – also called terminal – means that cancer has escaped from the body tissue, spreading to other parts of the body. It is not necessary that the initial tumor has a large size: 4 stage of cancer is diagnosed in each case when there are distant metastases. Patients with terminal cancer rarely live longer than 2 years.
How to treat cancer?

A crucial factor in the success of cancer treatment is a timely diagnosis. In many progressive countries, there has already been a practice of mandatory regular screening using low-dose computed tomography (CT). This procedure does not take much time and does not put patients at risk due to high radiation doses. Compared with the traditionally used fluorography, CT can establish or disprove the diagnosis of cancer with much greater accuracy. In addition, a serious problem is the lack of regular preventive visits to the doctor that would help to reveal early signs of cancer. As a consequence – a person comes to the doctor with the symptoms that are characteristic for the 3rd and 4th stages of cancer: a protracted cough, chronic pneumonia and emaciation.

At the same time, European progressive healthcare organizations know how to suspect cancer in the early stages, how to reliably determine the location of the tumor and with the help of which analyzes and samples it’s possible to find out a specific type of neoplasm in order to choose the best combination of therapeutic methods.

When the necessary data on the disease are collected, the doctor decides on the tactics of fighting cancer. It is a mistake to think that the only effective method of treating a tumor is a surgical operation. However, in some situations, oncologists prefer chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the latest technologies, which provide an opportunity to reduce neoplasm volumes.

Surgical treatment

Surgical treatment is used in situations where the tumor has clear boundaries and can be removed simultaneously with the nearest lymph nodes. However, if oncologists have reason to suspect that the malignant cells have spread widely, they will offer to remove the segment or the whole body (if possible). Clinical practice shows that patients are able to live a full active life without some organs. In some cases, when there is no hope for complete healing, surgeons perform an operation aimed at reducing the tumor volume and removing metastases from vital organs.

Chemotherapy

Some types of cancer grow so quickly that trying to remove it with a scalpel is almost always doomed to failure. Chemotherapy comes to the rescue: treatment of tumors with drugs that are harmful to malignant cells (unfortunately, often for healthy ones). In some cases, this method is the only one that can help the patient. In others, chemotherapy is combined with surgery, allowing to reduce the amount of surgery and exclude relapse.

The optimal solution is an individual selection of drugs taking into account the peculiarities of the course of the disease, which is possible only after genetic analysis of tumor cells extracted from the biopsy.

Medications are prescribed by courses, at intervals of several weeks (this is necessary to allow the body to recover from side effects). At the end of therapy, the patient undergoes a tomography scan to track how the tumor changes under the influence of chemotherapy.

Chemotherapy cancer drugs:

Platinum drugs destroy the DNA of cancer cells. They relate to cytostatic agents of the alkylating type of action;
Alkylating agents – these drugs destroy proteins that are responsible for the formation of DNA of cancer cells;
Anthracyclines are drugs that form free radicals that damage the DNA of diseased cells (daunorubicin active ingredient);
Antimetabolites are drugs that affect the genetic apparatus of the cell and kill it during division. As a rule, the basis of these drugs is Gemcitabine (cytotoxic drug, antimetabolite from the group of pyrimidine antagonists);
Taxanes are drugs that disrupt the process of dividing cancer cells;
Vincalcaloids refer to the soft means of chemotherapy, which destroy the cytoskeleton of cancer cells.
Hormonal cancer drugs

Hormonal drugs are used to treat hormone-dependent tumors, such as uterine cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer. Also, hormonal drugs are prescribed to patients with such oncological diseases as a kidney tumor, a pancreas tumor, melanoma.

In male cancers, estrogen-containing drugs are prescribed to suppress androgens. In female cancers, androgen-containing drugs are prescribed (Tamoxifen, Herceptin, Taxol);
For both forms of cancer, such drugs as Avastin and Zoladex are recommended;
Doctors also prescribe hormonal drugs for thyroid cancer: Thyreocombe, Thyroxin.
Although hormonal drugs for cancer are effective, they have the opposite side – with long use, the body becomes immune to these drugs, and this weakens the effect of chemotherapeutic drugs over time.

Antiviral drugs for cancer

Some types of cancer develop due to the action of viruses. Antiviral drugs are prescribed to increase the resistance of immunity.

One of such viruses is the human papillomavirus. In order to strengthen the immune system of a person with cancer, a doctor prescribes drugs based on interferon (tilorone) solutions for internal injections or ointment compresses.

Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy is based on the harmful effect of radiation on living cells prone to rapid division. If a person has cancer, then primarily the tumor will suffer from radiotherapy. Doctors use devices that allow you to direct a focused beam of X-rays to the area where the tumor is located. Healthy tissues suffer insignificantly, especially if radiation is “delivered” directly to the body with a probe inserted into the body through the upper respiratory tract.

With some types of cancer and the presence of contraindications for surgery, radiotherapy is the only method of treatment. Radiotherapy is also prescribed to destroy or reduce the volume of metastases in lymph nodes and other organs.

Photodynamic therapy

This method has recently appeared in the arsenal of oncologists. Photodynamic therapy is a session of exposure to light of a certain length on the tumor, which is preliminarily treated with a special drug (photosensitizing agent), which increases the sensitivity of malignant cells to such an effect. Under the influence of the rays, the neoplasm decreases in size, and the effect of the course lasts for several months.

Photodynamic therapy can be used as an additional method of treating cancer, improving the prognosis of recovery, and as a basic medical tactic, to alleviate the symptoms of the disease in an irreversible stage.

Advanced treatment approaches

If the doctor offers treatment methods that you have never heard of, do not think that you will be a part of an “experiment”. It’s not necessarily about using some outlandish drugs or newly invented devices. This group also includes proven methods, which were mentioned above, but with modifications to the way they are used. For example, many modern clinics offer patients to experience the “Cyber-knife” – a device for focused radiation therapy, which literally burns a tumor, without incisions and anesthesia. Another example is the use of the newest chemotherapy drugs that block the growth of blood vessels around the neoplasm, disrupting its nutrition. As a result, the chances of a successful victory over cancer are increasing.

Despite encouraging results of scientific research, doctors still cannot guarantee the result in each specific clinical situation: a patient sometimes reacts to treatment in an unpredictable way. However, the patient and his family should do everything possible to fight cancer. An important role in the forecast is played by the patient’s psychological mood.

Complex treatment of cancer

Usually, cancer treatment is combined and consists of chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy. Sometimes, in addition, high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation are prescribed. Children are treated according to standardized schemes. In practice, such treatment requires a well-coordinated teamwork of medical specialists in various fields: oncologists, radiologists, surgeons, psychologists, nurses and many other hospital staff.

HPV Vaccination And Cervical Cancer Prevention

Cervical Cancer is responsible for more than any gynecologic-related deaths world wide than any other malady, making it the most important preventable disease in women’s health today. Worldwide each year 4, 93,243 women are diagnosed of cervical cancer of whom 2,40,000 women die of this disease (WHO). India contributes more than ¼ of the global burden. Each year about 1,32,082 cases of this cancer are diagnosed and more than 74,118 women die of this disease, this cancer being most common cancer of women in our country.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is now a well established cause of cervical cancer. Human papilloma virus is a double stranded DNA virus of papovaviride family. More than 100 types described; 30 infect ano genital tract. High risk types of 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68 are associated with neoplasia. HPV 16 and 18 in 70% of this cancer cases world wide and 45 and 31 with a further 10% of this cancer case. Low risk types 6, 11, 42, 43, 44 associated with genital warts (cardyloma) and do not cause cancer. Almost 100% cancer cases of cervix are associated with HPV, 90% cases of anal cancer, 40% cases each of vulva, vagina, penis and about 12% cases of oral cavity and pharynx are HPV related cancers.

Cervical Cancer ranks the first most frequent cancer among the women between 15-44 years. According to WHO/ICO information centre on HPV and cervical cancer, India has the population of 365.71 million women ages 15 years and older who are at risk of developing cancer. About 6.6% of women in general population are estimated to harbor cervical infection at a given time and 76.7% of invasive cervical cancer in India are attributed to HPVs 16 & 18. Human papilloma virus spread primarily through sexual intercourse. Infection can occur in as little as one month after the fist sexual contact.

Though HPV is a necessary cause of cervical cancer but is not a sufficient cause. Other Cofactors are necessary for progression from cervical HPV infection to cancer. High parity, tobacco smoking, longterm use of oral contraceptives and coinfection with HIV have been identified as established co-factors; co-infection with chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus type -2, immunosuppression and certain dietary deficiencies are other probable co-factor.

With the knowledge of HPV (Oncogenic types) as the causative agent of this cancer, two types of vaccination strategies have been aimed at prophylactic vaccine is Virus Like Particle (VLP)